Development history of heat sink
As we all know, the working temperature of electronic devices directly determines their service life and stability. In order to keep the working temperature of PC components within a reasonable range, in addition to ensuring the temperature of PC working environment within a reasonable range, it is also necessary to conduct heat dissipation. With the enhancement of PC's computing power, the problem of power consumption and heat dissipation has become an unavoidable problem.
Generally speaking, the large heat sources in PC include CPU, mainboard, video card and other components such as hard disk, etc. a considerable part of the electric energy consumed by them will be converted into heat when they work. Especially for the current high-end graphics card, it can easily achieve 200W power consumption, and the heat of its internal components can not be underestimated. To ensure its stable operation, it is necessary to effectively heat dissipation.
The first generation: the era without the concept of heat dissipation
In November 1995, the birth of voodoo graphics card brought our vision into the 3D world. Since then, the PC has almost the same 3D processing ability as the arcade, creating a real 3D processing technology era. Since then, the development of graphics chips has been out of control. The core working frequency has increased from 100MHz to 900MHz, and the texture filling rate has soared from 100M / s to 42bn / S (GTX480). In the face of such a big change in performance, it is conceivable that heat is generated. Air cooling, heat pipe, semiconductor cooling sheet and other heat dissipation equipment are also used in the video card. Today, I'd like to introduce the development and trend of the cooling equipment for the next mainstream graphics card.
When the voodoo graphics card was just launched, there was no heat dissipation facilities. The core parameters were exposed to us. Compared with the current mainstream graphics card, there was no GPU at that time. The processing power of the main core chip on the graphics card is even weaker than that of the current network card, so the heat output is almost zero, and almost no additional cooling equipment is needed.
The second generation -- Application of heat sink
In August 1997, NVIDIA once again entered the 3D graphics chip market and released NV3, namely Riva 128 graphics chip. Riva 128 is a 128bit 2D and 3D accelerated graphics core with a core frequency of 60MHz. The core heating has gradually become a problem. The use of heat sink has officially entered the field of graphics card.
The third generation: the coming of the era of air cooling and heat dissipation
The release of tnt2 was like a heavy bullet hitting the heart of 3dfx. The core frequency is 150MHz, which supports almost all 3D acceleration features at that time, including 32-bit rendering, 24 bit z-buffer, anisotropic filtering, panoramic anti aliasing, hardware bump mapping, etc. performance enhancement means that the core heating increases, but the technology still adopts 0.25mm without great progress, so the passive way of heat sink can not meet the current needs, Active cooling mode officially enters the stage of video card.
The patented cooling system twinturbo II (the second generation of fully covered dual turbo cooling fan) is used. The cooling fins completely cover the whole card. When starting, the space-time air will flow out and in through two fans in one direction, which can effectively take away the heat of the chip and the video memory. Moreover, two ball bearing fans can effectively reduce noise, and the metal heat sink net can make the service life longer.
Although the high-speed fan is the best way to solve the problem of heat dissipation, some friends can't stand the noise of "lampblack machine" while enjoying the endless fun of 3D games. Fortunately, the application of heat pipe technology just solves this problem, which is generally composed of core heat sink, back heat sink, two large area fins and one heat pipe. As a passive heat conduction device, the heat pipe transfers the heat rapidly from the heat absorption section to the heat release section through the phase change of the internal working fluid, and then returns to the heat absorption section relying on the internal capillary structure, which is cyclic, does not consume electricity or generate noise, and has strong heat conduction ability. It realizes the rapid heat transfer in a limited space, thus increasing the heat dissipation area and greatly improving An effective way to improve the passive cooling effect. However, this way of heat dissipation still has disadvantages, because the heat dissipation capacity is not strong enough, it can only be used on the middle end card. If the high-end uses this technology, it must add a fan.